Colored Conventions Project Digital Records

Proceedings of Consultation Convention of 350 leading Colored Men of Georgia. Held in Macon, Georgia, January 25th and 26th, 1888


Click image to view file:

1888GA State Proceedings Macon.comp.pdf

Transcribe This Item

  1. 1888GA State Proceedings Macon.comp.pdf
  2. 1888GA-proceedings-01.pdf
  3. 1888GA-proceedings-03.pdf
  4. 1888GA-proceedings-04.pdf
  5. 1888GA-proceedings-05.pdf
  6. 1888GA-proceedings-06.pdf
  7. 1888GA-proceedings-07.pdf
  8. 1888GA-proceedings-08.pdf
  9. 1888GA-proceedings-09.pdf
  10. 1888GA-proceedings-10.pdf
  11. 1888GA-proceedings-11.pdf
  12. 1888GA-proceedings-12.pdf
  13. 1888GA-proceedings-13.pdf
  14. 1888GA-proceedings-14.pdf
  15. 1888GA-proceedings-15.pdf
  16. 1888GA-proceedings-16.pdf
  17. 1888GA-proceedings-17.pdf
  18. 1888GA-proceedings-18.pdf
  19. 1888GA-proceedings-19.pdf
  20. 1888GA-proceedings-20.pdf
  21. 1888GA-proceedings-21.pdf
  22. 1888GA-proceedings-22.pdf
  23. 1888GA-proceedings-23.pdf
  24. 1888GA-proceedings-24.pdf
  25. 1888GA-proceedings-25.pdf
  26. 1888GA-proceedings-26.pdf
  27. 1888GA-proceedings-27.pdf
  28. 1888GA-proceedings-28.pdf
  29. 1888GA-proceedings-29.pdf
  30. 1888GA-proceedings-30.pdf
  31. 1888GA-proceedings-31.pdf
  32. 1888GA-proceedings-32.pdf
  33. 1888GA-proceedings-33.pdf

Dublin Core


Proceedings of Consultation Convention of 350 leading Colored Men of Georgia. Held in Macon, Georgia, January 25th and 26th, 1888


Pamphlet (31 p. ; 24 cm.)








[This document has not been fully transcribed or processed. Please excuse any errors or missing parts.]







Macon, Georgia,

JANUARY 25TH AND 26TH, 1888.






PRESIDENT........................ REV. W. J. WHITE ........................ Augusta, Ga.

VICE-PRESIDENTS................ REV. J. B. L. WILLIAMS ................ LaGrange, Ga.

{ J. H. BROWN, ESQ ................ Savannah, Ga.

SECRETARIES........................A. W. BURNETT................ Atlanta, Ga.

{ REV. C. M. MANNING ................ Acworth, Ga.




In response to a call for a Consultation Convention of the repre¬ sentative colored men of Georgia, about three hundred men from parts th? state assembled this city to-day. No public hall being- large enough seat the delegates attendance, the Cotton Avenue Baptist church kindly tendered the use their house. At o'clock a. in., the meeting was called order by Rev. \Y. White, Editor the Georgia Baptid. who requested Rev. Walker read the fol¬ lowing To the Colored Citizens of Georgia :— The matter of having Consultation meeting the leading colored men of the State has been under discussion for some time. On the 24th day November, 1887, number of gentlemen met the city Macon, da,, discuss the advisability of making call. After fully considering the matter, it was unanimously decided to invite the leading colored men Georgia, meet in the city of Macon, on Wednesday morning, January 25th 1888, o -lock. The Chairman of that meeting. Rev. W. White, was appointed prepare and issue call for this meeting. It not deemed necessary to enter into details this call, beyond stat¬ ing that we believe the time has come when the colored men Georgia should meet, consult and agree upon some wise course future action, for the promotion the race's welfare. After more than years freedom and its benefits, with thousands our people greatly advanced from the degradation slavery days, the colored men Georgia find predominating sentiment among their white fellow-citizens, keep them condition largely assimilating to their condition when held bondage. But the darkest cloud has its silver lining, so the colored men Georgia sees some rays hope the fact that large number the best white people the state are ready and willing to give them fair chance the race life. The present chain-gang and penitentiary system Georgia, simply barbarous, and yet no past legislature has removed this foul blot. Every at¬ tempt improvement has failed, and as matter fact; the helpless con¬ victs of the state are being made the subjects cruelty far beyond the limit authorized by the statutes, even providing for the enforcement the most rigid discipline. The educational facilities afforded the state are totally inadequate to the needs the people and yet the colored people are deprived of a just share the small amount provided for this purpose. Under the fluence of senseless and unrelenting prejudice, the legislature last ses¬ sion has connected with the continuance the annual appropriation the Eight Thousand Dollars the Atlanta University, conditions which amount to a virtual withdrawal of this money from that school. This action was tak¬ en the face of the fact that appropriations white institutions learning were larger than former years. The colored men Georgia owe themselves and their children organize and unite their strength with the good white people the state for the removal existing evils, and the curement of more of the benefits which their citizenship entitles them. This call addressed to all classes our people and we trust the people will interest themselves in raising money to^assist their leaders attend. Ministers of the gospel, school teachers, professional men, the farmer, the merchant, the mechanic, the artizan, and the wage worker are invited tend. A people who will not try help themselves cannot expect others help them. Let us help ourselves and ask the Lord turn the hearts oth¬ W. WHITE, Editor Georgia Baptist, Chairman. ers to our help. W. H. YOUNG, Secretary. Anthony Wilson L Crawford Hon. P. O. Holt Hon. Jeff Long Member House Member House Representatives for Camden Representatives, Mcintosh Co. Macon, Ga. Macon, Ga.

ES OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. John H Deveaux S W Easley, Jr.,. Editor B John J T T White Harvey W Marlow ... Rev Rev Savannah Tribune Editor Herald of United Churches Editor Editor Columbus People's Messenger Business ...... Manager Milledgeville, People s Macon, Choice Choice (la. " Re\ R H C T T E H M Jurner Brightharp Robinson Hart. Rev Thomas Screen Walter Rev Rev AM SYPope J A Rev W Henderson, Flovd E Jolly Searls Hill P Pitts Johnson Thomas Snelson 44 tk ^ ^ .Mcintosh, Hawkinsville, Macon, Logansville •• "■ •• Waynesboro, Jesup, " Rev Rev CT J W ,4 Walker Dunjee Rev G S Johnson Augusta, " Rev T Col J A HL P Isaiah J J O A D R McHorton Johnson W Lyons M Dent W Walker... Wimberly C T L H Russell Greene Chatters Craig Blocker, Jr " ^ " " " " " " " " " " Robert David Lark Battey " " " Since issuing the call for the Consultation meeting, January 25th, 1888, the following names have come to us in endorsement Hon Rev W T H P J Gadson.. James Golden M Jones Blue of the call: Brunswick, Atlanta, Brunswick, Ga. " Appling, Dr. Wm Troy Rev Rev Rev Rev Rev A L R W W Prof. H T W H S Kent Smith Ramsey Watson Tilman T. M. Dent, of Hawkinsville, made some Covington, Augusta, Atlanta, Augusta, Covington, Columbus, very eloquent marks, setting forth the need of unity above all things, and that '• "■ "• " " '* " re¬ from to-day up-building the colored men of Georgia of should set out to work together for the of the race. He closed by W. Athens, Burnett, for Esq. temporary Col. Pledger chairman. was nominating Col. W. A. Pledger, The motion was seconded by A. unanimously elected temporary chairman. On being conducted to the chair, Col. Pledger spoke in strong endorsement of the call for this Convention and declared his willingness and purpose to do all in his power to make the business of the body a success. On motion of Rev. E. K. Love, of Savannah, Dr. A. E. Williams, of Crawfordville, On motion of was Capt. chosen J. A. temporary Sykes, of secretary. Savannah, a committee of live, as follows, was appointed to nominate a president, two vice-presidents and two W. Lyons, The secretaries: chair J. W. requested Marlow, Capt. Rev. Jas. Esq., C. A. Rev. Max Sykes, E. Manning K. Prof. Love. T. to M. lead Dent, the Capt. body J. in

MTNUTES OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 3 devotional Manning exercises. After singing and reading a chapter, Oapt. offered J. a fervent prayer Rev. C. M. 011 enrollment. W. Lyons moved that a committee Lyons, Motion Chairman; adopted Major and committee W. Easley, appointed A. of ten be appointed as follows

Capt. J W. Logan. Esq., Capt. Combs, Rev. E. P. Holmes, Hawkins, H. John*Heard, Brown, Esq., Burnett, Esq., Rev. Esq., Douglass, Mc- W. M. Esq. A recess of 15 minutes was taken to allow the committee time to make For president. The The up their committee body was report. called to nominate order permanent the expiration officers reported the recess. W Easley, Rev. Atlanta; W. White, as follows: vannah; for secretaries, Max On Manning, motion of Acworth. Rev. 2nd A. W. C. T. Augusta; for vice-president, vice-president, Burnett, Esq., Rev. Atlanta Walker, the report was Maj. Love, Sa¬ and Rev. amended by striking substituting out the the name name Maj. Rev. W. Easley Williams, for 1st vice-president and the name the name of of J. Rev. H. E. Brown, K. Love Esq., for 2nd Savannah. vice-president The report and LaGrange; substituting the com¬ also mittee as amended was unanimously adopted. chair. Convention Thomas, The The president amid Esq., president-elect, enthusiastic appointed Jones Co., Rev Capt W. conduct White, Wimbish, the president Atlanta elect and the the chair spoke as follows applause. The president was introduced upon taking the which Gentlemen feel for the this Convention:—I expression cannot express you the gratitude your continued confidence myself, Through and my devotion your best interests and welfare, to elevate years and lift have up my assiduously people. labored the labors through which sunshine have and put storm forth to have the representative colored men Georgia meet and consult than gether, to advance have had the interest my mind the no colored other man object, Georgia, purpose, and desire the doing will be advanced. which the interest Born upon every Georgia man soil, this claim grand the old right empire state call her Georgia bosom. mine, Believing and hold with Georgia all my heart sacred reverence any son that the time has come when the true colored men Georgia should unite for the purpose help¬ ing fected the That Savannah most themselves them, wide-spread important to the regard Chattahoochee reference interest meeting this meeting has been and number colored from aroused, many men the matters mountains that ever respects the that held people likely especially the the from north prove state. the to the everglades the southern boundary Georgia have been awak¬ ened, proven the j>resence here nearly four hundred the most not be representative regarded as egotistical men from parts presenting the state. my views trust shall what re¬ gard ored men the necessary of Georgia action take for this the Convention first place, the would representative state that col¬ we ought that to confine matters our belonging action matters Georgia, that with pertain the single our home exception affairs, petitioning the United States Cong



bill or one of like import. I refer you to the resolutions of Augusta in of a monument reference to our colored to the soldiers Grant memorial who adopted by were fund, killed and in the late war.


Prof. Whereas. Craig It is arose a well and known offered fact the to following all intelligent resolutions: people men Whereas, took a prominent It is also part a well-known in the war between the stales, and that colored valor, the colored troops cause: therefore be fact that by did it much for the achievement of their victory courage and the the to raised of some courageous take the proposed United Resolved, Resolved, Events plan by Union; some the to States and steps Colored cause transpiring colored and That That world to be whereby our the we the it Convention also colored people further memory call a monument to people upon of to contribute those be the of held Georgia shall of above in their to Macon, be for hereby respectfully Ga.; .January erected by the the national request race who died in the Negroes 25th, defense 188H of named Convention the fund that memory is to adopt now being but lead every people renowned in our of the hero, state United General during States Ulysses the to the of that S. Grant. past few years there is a rapidly element of the thoughiful colored white growing citizens determination of could man to a realization of the fact that the state to on ignore the part in of a large the controling measure^ the rights, privileges and immunities of the colored citizen. The gen¬ eral have clared policy that to Senators recognition of the state Blair which is and to ignore is Pugh, due the them. when claims taking Mr. of Cogin, the testimony colored of Augusta, people on capital de¬ to and labor, that he did not regard the colored full American citizens, and in people doing so, he as people have been slow to accept. bers as nine to ten' with expressed Though a the truth colored which the colored the white population population num¬ of the state,, the the white colored people men have of so many manipulated of the benefits the policy of citizenship. of the state It as is to not deprive nec¬ essary for me to many, tion to and make well-known known enumerate the to to the you. white grievances I regard which we have, it as the duty people of Georgia, the for they are of this Conven¬ wrongs which we wish should be righted, done, not and in harsh the grievances or unkind which language, we but wish plainly, abated. strongly, This their earnestly. influence The and colored their men votes ed and just of which we state organization must do more of to the be state used conjointly should in with my the opinion fair mind¬ unite white are at now this people through wrongfully meeting of which the than state deprived. the make for end the fine sought To securement speeches, do may this be we of and reached. must those pass have things good We a resolutions. work. man We must organize. Organize Self preservation ever hopes to be a full, is the free first citizen law of nature, colored and men, if the and colored go to of Georgia, he must unite his power otherwise, in the he tian men and use will ministers of never the ballot, of get. the gospel. This so as body to compel It is is that recognition which made up largely a good of Chris¬ of the people earnestness to both temporal our deliberations, sign for all classes of consult and Georgia spiritual for the when leaders. welfare these of Let men those us come invoke of whom together we are with largely, deep that whatever is done may redound the people, The hours and of the meeting glory of God. were fixed at 9 a. m., 3 divine guidance in to the good of all m., and 7:30 p. m. Adjourning at 1 p. p. m., 5p. m., and 10:30 p. m.

TION CONVENTION. 5 A resolution was adopted that all resolutions be referred to appro¬ priate Maj. committees S. WT. Easley without offered debate. the following resolution, which was re¬ ferred to committee 011 resolutions: Whereas, the full possession nites guaranteed of unwise its Whereas, citizens, and impolitic; a In a of convention alike In a country an equal where enjoyment to all of its government but all creeds, of the subjects, colors rights, and individuals are in of any particular without class, privileges a restriction color or creed, to and a would portion i/rrnu- be partial fails to true government promise guarantee of or "equal to and a protect portion and exact its of where citizens its justice citizens the in before law the are and fundamental the deprived its law," administration of of principles the all gives a men and full privi¬ of all leges scribed and citizens" immunities under of the a more circumstances, fortunate class, is justified, then a conference and cannot of be the looked "pro¬ upon Resolved, as diawing That a line the of partial color laws, or creed. particularly It is therefore is a justification The committee for this on Convention. enrollenient the school laws, of Georgia, made report showing about 350 delegates John from T. White, all parts Esq., of the moved state. that the president appoint a commit¬ tee the 011 colored State voters Organization, of the state. to submit The to motion this body prevailed. a plan for organizing The committees were fixed at eleven, and the privilege given the president Maj. to S. increase W. Easley them moved if he that wished. committees be appointed by the road presiden; ry; ty, State the Capt. Discriminations. Jury Fairs, on J. Education; System W. of the Georgia; County Chain-Gang; the Ballot; a State the Agricultural State Penitentia¬ Socie¬ and other industries; Temperance; Resolutions; Rail¬ Lyons opposed the appointment of a committee on bition. own Temperance harmony He regarded as by this introducing wrould it as necessarily unwise the question for introduce this Convention prohibition, the question to endanger upon of Prohi¬ which subject He regarded thei*e the are matter differences unity opinion importance, cannot be secured. and no subject We cannot, should he that cannot here reconciled. this said, introduced body afford where have the division unity very greatest action this He body moved where that the all whole committees colored people named, Georgia appointed, have except much committee stake. journment appointing on temperance. for this dinner, committee, "While WEDNESDAY and the the Harvey, Esq., was speaking favor president announced the hour body adjourned AFTERNOON. o'clock. The President called the Convention order o'clock. The body was led remarks on the prayer temperance the motion Capt. Lyons, tion he came, not talk Hon. Wilson. resolution. Col. Mr. W. about and rights said that which coming we Harvey Pledger resumed favored this Conven¬ possess, but about those things which we are entitled to, but not get. This not prohibition hibition, involve motion the and question convention. would was made not prohibition He object lay the not question opposed temperance political temperance, sense temperance report that but committee did pro¬ not on the Rev. table. E. K. This Love motion said that was lost. understood this Convention aim at t*ie elevation the colored people Georgia that knew no

F CONSULTATION CONVENTION. better race can way be by elevated, which his people save by could economy, be elevated unity, than sobriety by sobriety and ; virtue. no We we do must this, protect we will the never virtue see of our women, success as above things, and unless race. We must learn look out for number one. We do not mind stepping upon harmless worm, to the Rev. world, but C. we T. take must Walker care not said not step that on step us, 011 as rattlesnake. race, We must show perance, The and motion not take of Capt. up prohibition Lyons, for we will bite. he was any willing political use sense. the word tem¬ not appoint temperance com¬ mittee was lost. The motion to appoint committee on temperance, was put and unanimously hibition in political adopted, sense upon would an agreement not that the question pro¬ inserted, but that the com¬ mittee Rev. treat E. on K. moral Love methods of extending temperance. presented the following resolutions, which were referred not bled best that citizen English money, to and Co-operative to joined they in among conspires accomplished my, tation and each on can It discourage, we detrimental unite practically for ever children, is be his such business own which control Resolved, 4th, 2nd, 3rd, do Whereas, Whereas, purchase virtue, respect, in means death this are man formed, and grave. great between upon more should us. the the education, solid nothing, individually That That to That comes whose put work we protecting shroud, city frown the to thing or but make to the privilege him enterprises, in recognition, Stores, arid and Real by we our be we be 1st, Sell we manhood. clamor. the one Negro white Many Past voting just under fathers committee employed clothed oppose we individually, urge praiseworthy urge operate race. That the Macon, practical down weak, and Estate the year, people and do. methods as will great. each of men to trade, Negro our and can accumulating our everything though are vote, That legal this sell the If than control ignorant, right, upon and educational Co-operative and and other never people, knowledge, refined, endeavor white, representative and the condemnation on his we Convention, have Convention we There or which race we the Mercantile as Negro women and he basis, resolutions Negro illegal cradle when handle take nothing, will will have elevation no and felt we he poor failed would influential every we to do do people the may we women, no cannot imposed matters, accomplished do all amalgamation, that Farms, and whether the and property, perfect would all nothing, to place Associations all that will good regard privilege rise, for our need. in men upon demand the money divided swaddling can our the get and be not and he Loan our race our elevation reason upon, supporting forced be the and great. power it. closer the That purpose industry, has we disparage, that race, the power the with great, people. collectively these. by giving and respect the and For and acquisition will why clothes, Negro Negro we the or that wherever union to and which buy By making Trust until otherwise, regard as urge be break ballot the education Therefore birth the our form, the to this and everything treat considering from race has nothing nothing, of and Negro we win an we Associations, our race people great, newspapers recognition up to and means, our to and are lightly and American his unite will as race for his 20 spend. co-habi¬ was bastard we assem¬ fatally saving should can be econo¬ people cradle when¬ years. and cause coffin unite them good unite until that that and will the en¬ we or, be great, every of our town, the women—even women city and must locality, those be pure. and Therefore, we be pledge ghastly cultured, ourselves influential to unite and in white people who call us who do protect not want with to be protected. courage, For some the virtne of the impure, have power. helped make us so. To lands 5th, could That scarcely we condemn excel. be virtuous to lynching We feel that as lawless the good and citizens barbarous, could such as heathen lessness 6th, That they we would. pray the We passage are sure that the Blair can educational be stopped. bill, stop this law¬ as being just,



patriotic and wise, and that Senator Blair is worthy of our confidence, love and praise, and that the same are hereby tendered.

Rev. W. H. presented the following resolutions, where were referred to the committee on resolutions:

As it is the design and purpose of this Convention here met, to formulate and put into execution, some plans for the further uplifting and bettering the condition of our people, and as there are here gathered together some of the brightest stars and most intellectual minds in the State of Georgia for the same; be it

Resolved. 1st. That it is the sense of this Convention, that committees be formed in each and every county in the State of Georgia for the purpose of forming clubs, to be known as clubs of union, and that they be taught unity.

2nd, That the clubs have presidents, vice-presidents, secretaries, board of managers, and a treasurer, and that members of said clubs pay in monthly, or quarterly, such sum or sums as shall be designated by each club, and such money shall be deposited in some safe place or bank, until enough shall have been paid in to warrant an outlay in lands or other materials for the benefit of said members.

3rd, That said clubs have some one in the county, and invite others when practicable, to lecture from time to time on unity, and the betterment of the race.

4th, That each club, for its own maintenance, and the good of the race, loan money to its members on small interest, or to buy provisions, and let them have them to run farms, and take a lien on said farms, where it does not come in contact with the owners of the land: and where this is the case, then upon such materials, as will secure the club against loss. 5th, That each club be instructed to teach by practice, precepts and examples, and to cultivate among our people everywhere, as a race, self-respect, race pride, and confidence in each other, whereby good may come to the race from them who now hiss and scorn us as a race, on account of color and previous condition.

The following resolutions were presented by Maj. S. W. Easley, Jr., and referred to the committee on resolutions:

Resolved, That this Convention will, before it shall have adjourned, organized a State Agricultural Association, having for its aims and objects the giving of annual State Fairs, exhibiting the mechanical genius, agricultural productions, industrial pursuits, and professional advancement of the colored people of the State. The organization shall consist of a president, general secretary, a treasurer, ten vice presidents, one from each congressional district, who, with the president, shall constitute the executive board. The order of vice-presidents shall be from the first congressional district to the tenth; the one from the first shall be the first vice-president, and so on. Each vice-president shall organize his district into county clubs, with a president, and with as many vice-presidents as the club may desire, and a secretary and treasurer. The executive board shall issue monthly, an agricultural journal. The membership shall be from the following occupations: Farming, Mechanics, or professors of trades, in which genius is required.

On motion, a committee of five, as follows, was appointed to prepare a program of subjects for discussion: D.F. Douglass, Esq., Revs. J.C. Bryan, T. E. Turner, W G. Johnson, D.S. Harris.

The president called the attention of the body to the fact that each delegate had been requested to contribute one dollar, and urged that the request be complied with, as this was the only way to meet the expenses connected with the calling and holding of this meeting.

It was moved and carried that a committee on financ be appointed. The president appointed finance committee as follows: Nelson Lowe, Esq., chairman, Rev. T. M. Robinson, Rev. C. Max Manning, A.A. Gordon, Esq., chairman, Sheppard Peak, Esq.

Major S.W. Easley, offered the following resolution and requested that it go to Committee on Education. (So ordered.)

Resolved, That we condemn the act of the legislature of 1886 and 1887;



for establishing a technological school, to be supported by the State, from the money of the tax—payers of the State. for white children, and a failure to establish a like one for the colored children of the State, the same being contrary to every principle of honesty and faithful stewardship of public servants.

The president announced the appointment of the following


On Jury System—J. W. Lyons, C. C. Wimbish, P. O. Holt, H. Watts, P. W. Wingfield, S. B. Morse, J. W. Upshaw, Manuel Persons, Henry Rudisell, Wm Brooks, Henry Coleman, E. J Tatum, II. M. Williams, J. W. Jones, R. S. Lovinggood, G. W. Bentley.

On Penitentiary System—Hons. A. Wilson, Ishmael Lonon, L. Crawford, J. F. Long, W. A. Pledger, Revs. E. P. Holmes, N. J. McCombs, Kitt Williams, L. Solomon, Capt. A. F. Hawkins, A. W. Burnett, C. J. Beason, W. R. Gray, G. W. Byran, Whitman Chapman.

On Education—Revs. E. K. Love, E. J. Fisher, W. H. Smith, E. W. Walker, Derry Murden, Dr. A. E. Williams, Hamilton Brown, R. S. Lovinggodd, J. Sinton, John W. Marlow, J. S. White, J. A. C. Dixon, H. J. T. Hudson, Ned McWhorter, J. W. Jones, B. H. Huff.

On the Ballot—W. A. Pledger, Revs. L. S. Smith, E. J. Fisher, T. J. Hornsby, G. W. Grinage; James A. Sykes, R. M. Logan, A. S. Beasley, P. Andrews, W. R. Young, R. C. Smith, Seaborn Brazel, Prof. A. Graves.

On State Organization—John T. White, Hon. A. Wilson, Dennis F Douglass, T. M. Dent, Rev. C. T. Walker, T. M. Robinson, John H. Brown, John Heard, F. H. Hutcherson, H. M. WIlliams, Rev. C. H. Brightharp, J. W. Marlow, P. T. Grant, Daniel Grant, B. H. Huff, Squire Owens, C. C. Clarke, Wm. Smith, T. T. Thomas, J. E. Drake, D. L. Solomon, Rev. D. Murden.

On State Agriculture Associaiton, Fairs and other Industries—Maj. S. W. Easley, Jr.,Hons. Nathan Toomer, L. Crawford, Rev. D. McHorton, Isaiah Ellington, J. W. Searles, Rev. E. D. Jennings, Jos. Levell, A. S. Thurman, W. F. Bailey, P. Andrews, B. T. Harvey, Thomas Thomas, John Glenn.

On Lynch Law—Rev. L. Solomon, Robert Odom, Wesley Paschal, F. F. Dellum, P. H. Lee, R. Jackson, Cyrus West, George Lewis, J. M. Gibson, A. T. Turner, Jackson Eldridge, S. B. Burgess, Revs. George Banks, C. Barker, A. D. Simmons, Wm. Williams.

On County Chain—gang—Rev. J. M. Bunn, J. J. Lee, J. W. Williams, D. Brown, Rev. J. D. Donaway, L. Jordan, J. E. Tripp, Nelson Lowe, M. D. Dennard, Rev. M. E. DeLaney.

On Railroad Discriminations— Rev. S. C. Upshaw, Robert Henry, Revs. L. Solomon, D. Murden, R. Taylor, D. Lewis, J. D. Reid, S. Paschal, Rev. Jolly Thomas, Rev. R. Scott Joseph Jones, Rev. C. T. James, W. Chapman, F. Kellum, Rev. E. L. Martin.

On Temperance—B. T. Harvey, Esq., Rev. W. G. Johnson, T. L. Searles, Rev. Lewis Williams, Isham W. Wood, S. H. Hamilton, J. H. Brown; Rev. T. B. Steward, Ellis Lewis, Prof. A. Graves, Rev. S. C. Upshaw, Bishop H. M. Turner

On Resolution—Rev. J. B. L. Williams, Capt. J. A. Sykes, Hon. A. Wilson, Capt. J. W. Lyons, Capt. C. C. Wimbish, Rev. C. Max Manning, Col. W. A. Pledger, Rev. Lewis Williams, Prof. A. Graves, J. T. White, Esq., B. T. Harvey, Esq., A. W. Burnett, Esq., R. S. Lovinggood, Esq., Maj. S. W. Easley, Jr., Rev. C. H. Brightharp, Rev. J. C. Bryan, Prof. T. M. Dent, Rev. E. K. Love, Rev. W. H. Smith, Hon. Ishmael Lonon, P. O. Holt, Esq., J. W. Marlow, Esq.,

F CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 9 John E. P. Heard, Ilolmes, Esq., Dr. W. W. J. F. Gaines. Nicholson, Esq., R. H. Hubbard, Rev. Adjourned to 7:30 p. m. WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION. E. ^ L. The Martin president to lead called in prayer. the Convention to order and requested Rev. On motion, it was voted that in discussing the program the gentle¬ man the paper opening be restricted shall have to whatever five minutes, time he and wishes, that and those discussing the discussion of one subject "■'National be restrictel aid to to education" 30 minutes after the opening C. T. It Walker: has been well said was ably discussed as address. follows by government depends greatly prosperity that upon the the safety intelligence and well-being of the Rev. general people sus of 1880 and and shows by the perpetuation that people—demands there of its citizens. Like the could not write. One of a government were 3,500,000 a well million white adults white instructed like who persons ours—of cannot citizenship. in the write. this people, country That The for there that cen¬ the are cannot lias tistics 3,600,000 a population shows write, colored that and of in 1,033.151 1,543,180. the persons in the United States over 10 years every there cannot are live write, 6,239,958 in South which people Carolina is colored male persons who cannot write. great and city she of has New 169,505 York who there cannot is only write. about of who this one-eighth cannot country write. above of our The the entire last age population, census of ten of age Georgia who The sta¬ one voter to years, shows and that who that 4,715,359, bama white. Georgia has North or 120,858 has 75 145,087 per Carolina illiterate cent illiterate of has voters. these 145,000 voters illiterates and illiterate 116,516 are in voters. of the these recent are South slave colored Carolina states. and 28,571 Ala¬ has er 117.000. ed. tion remedy 1,354.974 them. telligence Men of who This of weakness, Ignorance this must Mississippi illiterate are shows to know country. clothed be the the the voters destroys their bane has vast education with There 111,545 rights of in ignorance the society, manhood, this power of and must illiterate country the the of the be masses. of creates a required large franchise a and mother voters. remedy 944,424 a number Ignorance of Louisiana of that of 102,932. There are for bigotry this is the number the and malady voting prolific superstition. are and popula¬ moth¬ color¬ the should possess amount dead mind. of manhood It sufficient in¬ to demand produces manipulated. effect of crime, pauperism and misery. The ignorant is easily is an evil that slavery the duty of the The which colored was man a is curse not responsible for his ignorance; deluded it is It and the doing they national congress to legislation states are cial inability, appropria'e gence good government and for of citizenship; all of will do more to build up pass an upon the intelligent Blair our national educational citizenship escutcheon. bill, than for is by so the unable that could to move enacted the illiteracy generation. existing them Inasmuch on account the several finan¬ its integrity national citizens. the how and general important are aid since George essential dispel government our that government this the the illiteracy. government honorable couldn't made success, Since should no up nobler and provide the true permanence service individuality that than intelli¬ Adams favored national support Washington, Thomas education, and Mr. Jefferson Washington and instruction said: John "In proportion universally essential that as admitted the public structure that opinion well be government instructed enlightened." people gives James force alone public opinion, "It Madison can permanently said: a and free left people." every thing When ruin, Napoleon and destitution, passed over the Prussia leaders like called sweeping the people tornado, to-> gether decided to devise educate plans the for people, their the restoration masses, all happiness the people, and prosperity. and They Prussia has become most powerful country and humbled the successor result conqueror. and the the Queen devastation national Eegent The government to south provide Spain, has instruction not rendering sufficiently emancipating for assistance. her revived youths, the Cuban Our from hence government, the the ravages importance war unlike slaves, who gave



them all a start in life; but our government emancipated the Negro penniless, friendless, ignorant, and without experience, and upon that the responsibility of citizenship was thrust upon him at a time when he was not at all prepared for it. No people should be more interested about federal aid to education than the colored man. It is a lever that will lift him from the grave of ignominy and hatred and give him a prominent place on the stage of progress. The time has fully come in the history of the colored race when the Negro must no longer be a chattel and a tool. If he has any manhood he must assert it, if he has ability he must demonstrate it; if he expects to be a citizens in all the constitutes citizenship, the time has come for him to play the man; emancipated more than 21 years he is full grown, and the time has come to speak and act like a man and put away childish things. The Negro has been told to wait, don't be hasty. If we are citizens why wait any longer than others, we have proven to the government that we are a peaceable, loyal, law-abiding people. Let us no longer lie supinely on our back hugging the delusive phantoms of hope supposing our wants are already known, and will be attended to. Heretofore we have asked for nothing and have received nothing. For all time to come let none be more solicitous for our welfare, then we ourselves. Let us crowd our petitions into the national halls of legislations, let us us solve our problems, shape our destiny, make for ourselves a history, and take our places in the onward march of progress along side with the other races of this country. We thank God that we have no anarchrist, no liberalist no communist among us. We are bona fide citizens of this country; we have bedewed the soil with our sweat and tears. Our fathers cleared the forest, felled the timber, built up and perpetuated its history and the Natianal Congress could not bestow upon us a more appreciative benediction than to appropriate national aid to education.

The vast amount of illiteracy among our people should call forth united efforts in petitioning our Congressmen and Senators to give their votes and influence for the passage of the Blair bill. We are not asking Congress for the mule and 40 acres, but for an appropriation to educate its citizens. An appropriation that will produce a crusade of virtue against vice; an appropriation that will dispell ignorance where it is now predominating, that will obliterate buying and selling of votes; an appropriation that will produce a happy, prosperous and intelligent citizenship. to-day, the Savannah Valley Convention is assembled in Augusta. Parts of Georgia and South Carolina have assembled to memorialize Congress to make an appropriation for the Savannah River. So we, in common with other citizens, must ask for what we most need. We are not making an unreasonable request. We will not call upon them in the language of an ambitious Hannibal, to scale the cloudcapped Alps, nor with the voice of a Napoleon to dig our way through ice and snow to a Moscow. Nor do we ask to have uncapped the cloudy Andes, but we simply ask for federal aid to education. If it is the duty of Congress to grant appropriations to harbors, rivers, armies, military institutions and expositions, and if these grants are not at variance with the Constitution, is it not the duty of Congress to grant an appropriation for education and thereby lift its citizens from ignorance to civilization and honor, to activity and respectability? for in this grant it would open to its citizens the gates of virtue, glory and immortality. Many claim the Blair bill to be unconstitutional; and yet some of the ablest lawyers advocate its passage. It may not be inappropriate to mention the statements of some of the leading journals and sentiments of our law-makers, and moulders of public sentiment.

The "Birmingham Age" said recently editorially, "Congress appropriates money, and your anti-Blair-bill Congressman votes for it without hesitation or without the slightest qualm of conscience, to educate Indians and soldiers and also sailors and yet when it is proposed to appropriate some of the surplus in an overflowing treasury, to the education of illiterate whites of blacks, it is called the most monstrous scheme of the age. How inconsistently absurd!" A Philadelphia paper says: "We can see no adequate reason for opposing the Blair bill, aiding common school education in the southern states where the illiteracy is the greatest. There is money enough in the treasury; in fact every one acknowledges there is too much." The only semblance of a real objection that we have seen, is the assertion that the proposed aid will tend to pauperize the aided States, encouraging them to depend on the general government, rather than on themselves. But this objection does not seem valid. Is not the case parallel to that of the aid given by the several states to the towns? The state says to a town, we will give you so



much on condition that you raise so much. There is no tendency towards pauperization in that, it is for the interest of every state that the people of every town and county should be educated. It is for the interest of the whole country that the people of each state be educated; and why should not the nation help the states out of the common fund? Senator Vest in his recent speech in the United States Senate, in opposition to the Blair bill, said that the "enthusiasm which represented the bill as a panacea for all the evils which affected the body politic was both monstrous and fanatical." The people should see to it that such men stay at home. In petitioning Congress for national aid to education we are only joining in with citizens, who are agitating this great question. Senator Blair said, in advocacy of his bill: "Education, physical, intellectual and moral is the primal necessity. The fathers and founders of our government thought that a republic could stand only on the virtue and intelligence of its citizens." President Monroe said in 1870: "Let us, by alwise and constitutional measures, promote intelligence among the people as the best means of preserving liberties." The lamented Gerfield said: "All the constitutional power of the nation and of the state should be summoned to meet the danger by the saving influence of universal education." In a memorial to Congress, signed by Dr. Straiby, Dr. Hartzel, Dr. Moorehouse, Dr. Sheldon Jackson, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, agent of the Peabody fund, Prof. Painter, of Fisk University, and Prof. Armstrong, of Hampton Institute, they say that there should be help for the common schools. The safety of the republic is the supreme law of the land. They state to Congress that the help should be immediate and not remote; the fortunes of war and the necessity of legislative action, have made citizens of a large mass of ignorant men, whose votes are to shape, for weal or woe, the character of our laws. Education alone can convert this mass of ignorance an element of danger into one of the enlightened strength and safety. The same committee says the power to grant national aid to remove illiteracy is co-ordinate with the power that enfranchised the illiterate voter. Our late state school commissioner, the distinguished Dr. Gustavus J Orr, said before the United States Senate: Georgia has a school population of 434,444 and 198,000 of that number are colored, 86,000 colored children were in school that year, leaving more than 100,000 colored children out of school. Dr. Orr paid a glowing tribute to the colored man, for the progress made in the accumulation of property since emancipation and stated that Georgia for one was unable to educate her people, and that he believed the education of the masses to be greater than questions of commerce, than questions of currency, than questions of tariff, than questions of constitutional law; greater than any question that statesmanship will have to contend with and settle, because we make the people and without the people we can do nothing else." Many of our Southern Senators favor federal aid to education.

Senator Lamar, who has been recently elevated to the Supreme Bench, said in favor of this bill: "I regard it as the logical sequence and the practical continuance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. It is fraught with unspeakable benefots to the entire population of the south, white and black." Senator Garland said: "I implore all sides to come together and vote for this bill to extirpate illiteracy" We should respect and honor the men who are interested in our progress and elevation irrespective of party; and we should remember that many of our Southern Senators and Congressmen are our true friends. Senator Pugh, of Alabama believed the subject of national aid to education be the most important measure before the Senate. Senator Vance, of North Carolina said: "I shall vote for the bill." Senator Brown, of Georgia said: "Without education the voter cannot be a safe intelligent voter. I am therefore very clearly of the opinion that there is no constitutional difficulty in the way of the passage of the bill." There are other Senators, such as Senator Jones, of Louisiana, George, of Mississippi, Ransom, of North Carolina, Jones and Call, of Florida, Riddleberger, of Virginia, Hampton, of South Carolina who said as a citizen, a patriot and a Senator, he would vote for national aid. Then there are Northern advocates: Senators Blair, Edmunds, Evarts, Sherman, Hoar, Miller and others. Is it not our duty as representatives of an oppressed people to urge our representative in Congress to do all in their power to secure an appropriation for national aid to education? And has not the time fully come for the Negro to rise from his long sleep and see about his interests? Does not our own professions, the claims of suffering humanity, the moral and intellectual culture of our people, and all that is sacred and dear to us call upon us to work, pray, talk, preach, and vote for



the men and things that will accelerate the education of our people. We are nearing the close of the 19th century, the greatest of all centuries, an age of progress, of mental excitements, and wonderful developments, a century in which Abraham Lincoln, by one stroke of the pen, liberated more than four millions of slaves, which was the central act of his administation and the greatest event of the 19th century. We owe to this century as a race, some demonstration of our progress, morally and intellectually and let us learn today that race pride, confidence in each other, unity of action, the possession of intelligence, the accumulation of wealth are the guarantees of honorable success and elevation. Let us remain in this southland, let us stand together, let us prove ourselves worthy of citizenship, let us know our rights and demand them. Let us agitate together. Let us sit down upon fraudulent leaders, office-seekers and tricksters. Let us write our name on the pages of future time as legibly as the stars on the brow of evening.

Prof. T. M. Dent made an eloquent five minutes speech endorsing the paper in the most complimentary of terms.

Bishop H. M. Turner was called upon and held the audience spellbound, while in glowing sentences and well rounded periods, he set fourth our many wrongs and deprivations which we suffer, and recommended, with some revision, the paper be printed and sent to every member of the United States Congress, in the hope that in its perusal by the members of Congress, it may fructify and its effect be felt the country over.

It was voted by motion of Bishop Turner, that the paper be turned over to the Committee on Education to be embodied in their report, said report to be printed and distributed among the members of Congress.

The Penitentiary System of Georgia was ably discussed by Hon. A. Wilson, member of House of Representatives Georgia:

The penitentiary system of Georgia is the most cruel in the country. The abuses are greater than anywhere else. Notwithstanding the agitation of years, the system has not been changed. A convict is sentenced to hard labor, but he is fed hard, clothed hard, and treated harder, and does not dare exhibit to the world the inside workings of the atrocious system. Going out to a convict camp unexpectedly, we had an opportunity of seeing what it really was. Although the law requires dry bedding, change of clothes and a weekly bath, all of these are denied them, and some of the convicts, having the courage to speak up, and tell us their condition, were beaten so bad that they were unable to work, and the doctor going out to see them found their back so badly blistered that the flesh was dropping from their backs. Such is the inward workings of the penitentiary of Georgia. Can Georgia stand it longer? May every voter in Georgia see to it that they cast their votes only for men that will consider the better treatment of those poor unfortunate beings. Georgia is disgraced by the management of such a system. As there is one Creator there is one law-giver and His will is the foundation of all law and authority, that is the God of heaven; for the securement of man's well-being, God ordains government. But the people are not the sole authority, and the citizens owe obedience to the rule, because every true ruler of every grade represents in his office not merely the will of the people as giving form to the constitution and law of he State, but that which underlines it and gives it all the authority and power that it has, the Divine law and constitution of the universe. The Apostle Paul exhorts citizens to obey rulers as thee representatives of Divine authority. Those who administer a just law by legitimate authority represent in the sphere of this office, God. Authority is derived from the people only in that it is the office of the people to determine the form of it. The right to do this depends upon its being so done as to conserve the ends God designs government to secure. The punishment of crime is a part of the business of human government only because it is necessary to punish the crime in order to accomplish the ends of the government. The right of the people to punish crime by methods prescribed by law is perfect; people living under organized government have absolutely no right to punish any offender without law ; to punish without law is the greatest violation of law, it is crime. Lynch law whenever it exists, is brutish, and it is



the evidence of an undeveloped, or of a degenerated social order. Why are criminals punished? Let a sane and just man ask himself the question. In his own thoughts he will find a threefold answer.

1. For the safety of society, for grave offences criminals are locked up or put to death, to protect the law abiding people.

2. Punishment is to deter them from repeating their evil deeds and to warn others not to imitate their example.

3. In a sensible and good government, a real thorough and incidental design is punishment, that is capital, is the criminal reformation. His reformation is sought for two reasons. First, as a guarantee to society that he will not continue attacks upon its order and peace. Secondly, to make him a better man. The second consideration though a noble one is perhaps least considered.


Reformation of criminals has nothing in common with the Maudlin sentimentalism that makes martyrs out of condemned murderers: heroes out of convicted felons. It does not send women to the cells of the justly condemned with rare delicacies and costly flowers; it is ashamed of those who do such things. It does not sign petitions for executive clemency simply because somebody presents them, it judges those who do such things with indiscriminating sensibility to be foolish and weak people who have small comprehension of the true principles of social order. The doctrine of prison reform believes in the enforcement of law, it insists upon the proper punishment of criminals as necessary to the security of society and the promotion of virtue, and as best every way, for criminals themselves. Underlying and vitally related to prison reform are certain simple and obvious truths that hardly need statement, much less argument. No government has a moral right unnecessarily to put the bodily health of its criminals in jeopardy. When governments lock a man up it is sacredly bound to make its hygenic conditions of his incarceration as good for him as prison life allows. There are to be no good excuse for doing less than this when the prison is filthy, so crowded, so badly ventilated, so hot, so cold, so poorly fed, or so cruelly governed, as to make the breeding of disease a certainty, lawlessness dies at the door. No government then has a right to imprison men, that is so poor that it can not provide reasonably for their health. When the prison death rate is exceptionally large, it is the evidence of negligence or oppression. The government that neglects or oppresses its prisoners, is guilty of an unpardonable sin. It makes punishment, persecution and justice, vengeance.


1 No just government will utterly deprive prisoners of the opportunity for mental and moral improvement. The right to punish crime does not involve the right to reduce to mental or moral imbecility.


2 No good government will allow conditions of prison life that make increasing immortality a certainty as the normal and inevitable result of these conditions. For example: Government in the name of the law violates the law and commits a crime against God and man when it incarcerates mere youths and hardened, accomplished villians in common prisons. In such a case, the government supports and conducts a normal school of vice. It has often came to pass, that what was ostensibly designed to protect society against criminals, has turned loose upon men graduated in the arts of crime, good people, by taxation, paying the tuition of those who learned in prison how to prey upon them upon their release. For example again: Government that allows the herding of men and women together, is not only criminal, it is barbarous. It promotes vice, and taxes the virtuous for the expense account. An illegitimate birth in a jail or penitentiary, is an appalling moral monstrosity in a civilized and christian country.


No government can be true to itself and adopt a plan of keeping criminals simply for the sake of making or saving money. Good and wise legislation never yet existed where money considerations were paramounts. Farming out the inflictions of the penalties of law, morally and politically, falls below the old Roman and the modern Turkish practice of farming out the taxes; it is no better than selling out the poor to the lowest bidder. History has made record of the atrocities of the system of farming out the taxes. It debauches government; it made the tax-gatherers corrupt, repacious, cruel; it



defrauded and oppressed their miserable victims. No government, for any consideration, least of all, a money consideration, has a right of any sort, to transfer its citizens its divine trust of enforcing law by punishing its violators. That the punishment of crime may be undertaken as a legitimate business in untenable. When the government transfers to individual citizens the executions of the sentences of criminals courts for money, it is wrong; it dishonors the subjects and betrays the trust committed to it by the Almighty God. It does such a thing to avoid the trouble and burden of caring for its criminals; it is weak and cowardly. The convict's lease system would never have existed, would never have been thought of, but for money considerations. If it was devised for the sake of the hire of convicts, or to save the government the expense of caring for the criminals, in either case, it was the consideration of money. Nobody ever voted for such a system; it was thought better for the convicts , or because it was thought to be safer for society. I appeal to you as Georgians to come to the front of this matter, and help to rid Georgia of this foul blot. We owe to Georgia, to ourselves to the world, and to suffering humanity. Georgia's honor and glory are at stake. Will you come up at the ballot box and help the grand old Empire state of the south?

Rev. E. K. Love was intensely moved by the speech of Hon. A. Wilson. He declared that the present penitentiary system of Georgia must be revised or abolished. It must go. He declared that he never had known the barbarities and cruelties practiced upon the convicts of the state. His very blood boiled within him. The Negro of Georgia must pout his foot down upon this penitentiary system of our state, and never rest until it is rooted up with a crowbar. The penitentiary system is doomed to-night, and doomed to die. After hearing the words of this eye-witness, he felt as he had never before.

Capt. A. F. Hawkins said for the young men that the funeral sermon of the penitentiary system is being preached to-night. We must not vote for any man who will not pledge himself to do everything in his power to remove this monstrous evil and foul blot from our State.

Col. W. A. Pledger said three-fourths of the members of this body are ministers, and the preachers say they are going into politics enough to lift this people from the slough of despond and place them on a plane of equality with any other race. They say that the sun of our progress will reach its zenith ere long, and, please God, those of us who are here to witness the realization of hopes and aspirations for which our fathers have spent their lives working will shed tears of joy, and honor those who have given their lives for these things.

Mr. Hamilton Brown spoke strongly in regard to the importance of paying taxes and utilizing their privileges as tax-payers by either sending men to the legislature to do our biddings or going ourselves.

J. F. Long, Esq., said that until our people learned how much is cost the government to place the ballot in our hands, we would not be worthy of the right vote. He would ask this convention, are we going home better and stronger to vote and work for the elevation of the race, or are we going home to sell out? He sometimes wondered what the colored man was coming to and declared that we were often our own worst enemy. He declared that the Republican party established the chain-gang in Georgia. He urged that every county in the State do as Bibb county had done-by sending to the State Legislature such men as Hon. A. Huff and Hon. Mr. Scofield.

W. R. Fray, Esq., said we need men who will stand up for the race whether they live or die. We need men whose backbone is so strong that they may sick to their neck, but will never break.

Bishop H. M. Turner replying to the charge made by Mr. Long



that the chain gang system in Georgia had been established by the Republican party, stated that the present penitentiary system and chain-gang system of the state was established by the Democratic Legislature and Governor James M. Smith. He showed that when the Republican Legislature met, Governor Jenkins and John Jones, the state treasurer, had sent every dollar of the State's money out of the State and that there was not a dollar to feed and clothe the State's convicts. To save convicts from starving they were hired out temporarily, but not as at present. The paper was referred to the penitentiary committee. The order of business was suspended to allow presentation of resolutions. The following resolutions was read and referred without debate:


WHEREAS, There are many colored voters who fail to pay their poll-tax, there be it

Resolved. The each member of this Convention not only pay his own poll-tax but urge every man in his county to do the same.

Referred to Committee on Resolutions.

Resolution of Rev. C. Max Manning referred to Committee on Penitentiary.

A public collection was taken. Adjourned to 9 a. m., Thursday.


The President called the Convention to order at 9 o'clock. Prayer was offered by Rev. J. B. L. Williams. Minutes of Wednesday were read, corrected and approved.

Col. W. A. Pledger offered the following which was referred to Committee on Resolutions:

WHEREAS, There is constant complaint concerning the Negro not learning trades and producing more thieves than the Caucasian race.

Resolved, That we suggest to those who complain that they open their doors to machine shops and establish Technological schools out of the state treasury as is done for the white youth, and raise the wages of colored female cooks and common laborers and such mechanics as we have to the extent that the laborer receives the worth of his hire ; and then will there be plenty Negro mechanics and no more Negro thieves than whites.

A. S. Thurmond, Esq., offered the following which was referred to Committee on Resolutions:

Resolved, That the Anarchist troubles at Chicago in 1887 is sufficient notice that the lives of American citizens are in danger so long as the United States is the dumping ground of Foreign criminals.

Maj. S. W. Easley moved that a committee of five, including the president and one secretary, be appointed to have the proceedings of this Convention printed in pamphlet form provide the means can be raised for so doing. Motion adopted.

Col. W. A. Pledger offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That while we deplore the necessity, we commend the courage of the colored people of Charleston and Greenville, S. C., in raising money to defend the colored men who lynched the white man who had outraged the colored woman near Greenville, S. C., thus carrying out the idea of imitation of our white brothers.

This resolution was adopted, but after some further discussion by Rev. E. K. Love, Bishop Turner, Capt. J. W. Lyons, Rev. D. McHarton, Col. W. A. Pledger, Rev. C. T. Walker, Capt. Wimbish, Vice-President Brown, the resolution was reconsidered and referred to a committee of three, consisting of Capt. J. W. Lyons, Col. W. A. Pledger and Rev. E. K. Love to be remodeled.

A number of resolutions were offered and referred to appropriate committees.



The special committee on Pledger resolution reported as follows:

We utterly repudiate and condemn lynch law, but commend the course of the colored men of Charleston and Greenville. S. C., who are trying to raise funds to secure a fair trial for the colored men who are charged with lynching the white man who committed an outrage upon a colored woman near Greenville, S. C.

The report was unanimously adopted.

The President had the following letter read:


Dear Brethren: -I cannot express my regret in words in not being able to be with you in your meeting of Consultation, My plan and purpose was to be with you without fail, but it seemed that Satan stepped in the way and as soon as I found out, I wrote to my good Bro. White to see if it was possible to change the time of meeting lest many others might be prevented from attending for a similar cause. But he informed me that it was too late.

The cause of my absence is this: This new Denny School law requires that the examination of public school teachers throughout the state, shall be on certain day or days, appointed by the State School Commissioner and there shall be no other time except on a special condition. My position requires me to provide colored teachers for five counties, very largely, which is no light duty. As the existence of our people's schools depends so largely upon me and as the State School Commissioner has seen fit to appoint almost the very day that we were to meet, viz.: we on the 25th and his appointment on the 26th, 27th, and 28th, inst. I could not possibly be present. Allow me to say brethren, that I look upon this meeting as one of very, very great importance, and especially at this time ; because you know there are many evils existing to the injury of our people that can be remedied if we will only plan wisely and move together in the execution of these plans when we return to our people. Brethren, I believe you will do it, and I shall look with great anxiety to the result of your deliberation. Respectfully yours,


Adjourned to 3 p. m.


President called meeting to order at 3 p. m. Prayer was offered by Rev. J. C. Bryan.

Col. W. A. Pledger presented the report of the Committee on the Ballot, as follows:

WHEREAS, After the late rebellion between the states, the Negro of the state of Georgia was clothed with every right of an American citizen as to the discharge of his duty at the ballot box that his interests as a freeman might be protected, carrying out the adage that the ballot is the palladium of liberty, and

WHEREAS. Since that time he has been murdered from one end of the state to the other, and his properties destroyed by every means foul, his wives and daughters outraged; and has been generally intimidated at every attempt to exercise the use of the ballot, by white men whom he had formerly served at home and in war when it was to his detriment to so do; whose wives and daughters he had protected and cared for during the strife that led to his emancipation when the use of the bludgeon and torch would have hastened the breaking off of the shackles that held him in an ungodly bondage. These men, while consenting now to his retaining the right to hold the ballot, refuse him in many sections of this state, as in Putnam, Lincoln, McDuffie, Oglethorpe, Elbert, Talbot and other counties in this state the privilege of using it. These men assert that no instances of late of outrage upon the Negro vote can be pointed to. While we grant that but few instances can be named now, we refer the public and sentiment makers to the fact that the Negro abstains from voting, except in local contests; where all men running for office are white men, and no contests such as the fence law and prohibition questions, where all white men who are interested. For he well knows the consequence of taking part in any other contest.

WHEREAS, The Negro groans in silence and unrest, because of having majorities in six Congressional districts in Georgia and no representation in the National Congress, and though seemingly passing happily the hours away, is laboring in a discontentment that does the country no good, and



feeling the pangs of the injustice perpetrated upon him, sends forth at every opportunity a prayer for the oppressed Irish in Ireland who are similarly situated, and loving this southern territory and form of government, feels every obstacle to the full enjoyment of his rights, as guaranteed by the organic law of the land, should be removed to the end that there should be no murmuring in this country of the "brave and the free." Therefore be it

Resolved, That we in Convention assembled respectfully but earnestly demand of the powers that be that the Negroes be given what, and only what, he is entitled to.

Resolved further, That never until we are in the fullest enjoyment of our rights at the ballot box will we cease to agitate and work for what justly belongs to us in the shape of suffrage.

Further resolved, That it shall be the policy of the colored race to vote so as to bring the greatest division to the white voters of this country, for in this we believe lies the boon of our desire.

Col. Pledger addressed the body upon the use of the ballot. He referred to the indignities suffered by the colored men of Georgia at the ballot box unless he was voting upon some question that did not involve his political opinions. These indignities often amount to abuse and violence. He declared that the time had come when every man should do his part toward delivering the people from their present disadvantages. It is, he declared, the duty of the minister to take part in this contest because if the people went back into bondage the preachers would have to go into bondage with them. By means of voting and political discussion the American people are free to-day to worship God in whatever manner they desire, by means of voting he must keep his freedom. What we want as a race is representation not individual representation. Race representation we must have or as a race we go back to a condition worse than our former bondage.

Rev. E. K. Love, Rev. D. McHorton, Capt. C. C. Wimbish, Capt. A. F. Hawkins, and R. S. Lovinggood, Esq., spoke in strong and eloquent language of endorsement of what had been said by Col. Pledger.

Prof. A. Graves presented the following report on Temperance which was unanimously adopted:


Mr. Chairman: We, your Committee on Temperance, beg leave to submit the following report:

Believing that God looks with disfavor upon the use of liquor, and that habit of liquor drinking is ruinous to the best interests of any people, destroying manhood, homes and families, defenseless women and children, yea, the very life blood of the nation, and especially our race, we deem it our imperative duty to set forth our position to the people of Georgia , upon this most important subject. We pledge our support to this great reform, and recommend that every man in Georgia lend his support to the suppression of the liquor evil.

B. T. Harvey, Chairman,

W.G. Johnson.

T. L. Searles,

Lewis Williams

Isham W. Wood,

S. H. Hamilton,

J. H. Brown,

T.B. Stewart,

Ellis Lewis,

A. Graves,

S.C. Upshaw,

H. M. Turner, Committee.


President called Convention to order. Rev. J. D. Donaway led in prayer.

By motion of Col. W. A. Pledger, Rev. Mr. Rose, of the Congregational church, was invited to read a paper which he had prepared on liquor and the liquor traffic. Rev. Mr. Rose not being a member of the body of his paper was not discussed. It was an able review of the evil effects of liquor and the great injury done by the liquor traffic in



all parts of the world. A vote of thanks was unanimously tendered the reader.

Col. W. A. Pledger made report for the Committee on the


WHEREAS, In civilized forms of government that mode of punishment for crimes committed is selected which is most in consonance with the dictates of humanity, and less shocking to the impulses, which actuate a true course in the furtherance of the causes of such civilization; and

WHEREAS, In the state of Georgia, a system known as the chain-gang system has been criticised, and pronounced inhuman and unchristian, tending to shock the very foundation upon which the structure of equity, and the plan of right is erected; a system that puts unprincipled men in charge of culprits who use the most barbarous means of chastisement and thrusts women and children in chains with the most hardened male criminals; that puts libertines as guards in charge of females, and causes the woman, in order to secure kind treatment, to become the kept mistress of the guard or boss, leading her to giving birth in many instances, to illegitimate children, as in the case of Carrie Williams, of Bibb county, and divers other instances as reported by the Principal Keeper of the penitentiary; that causes men to be striped and beaten with clubs and trace-chains, till disabled, or death produced; that permits the half-cladding of the convict, and often permitting the convict to go as long as months without change of clothes, and with food that produces emaciation and scurvy; and

WHEREAS, These hardships are chiefly confined to the colored convicts-there being but few white convicts, and they, in most cases, being trustees, without chains and with good food.

WHEREAS, Such distinguished white statesmen as Hons. W. A. Huff, W, H. Felton, J. S. Schofield, and others, have examined, by the power delegated them by the people, into this iniquitous system, and pronounced it a blot upon this age of progress and Christian civilization; therefore be it

Resolved. 1, That we, the colored representatives of the Afro-American race of Georgia, demand of the next Legislature, a change in the system, and urge upon the one hundred and forty thousand Negro voters of this state, the necessity of paying their taxes, and voting for no man, save he is pledged to the modification or change of such system. We demand a change in the jury system, so as to enable the people who form more than four-tenths of the population of the state, to be represented upon the jury, as intended by law, that unrest may be dispelled, and fair trials in court assured; for in this republican form of government, a fair and impartial trial is intended-a trail by a jury of the peers of the accused-that contentment may be, for where there is discontentment, there is no complete security for the peace, happiness and prosperity of the people.

2. That to secure the end desired in the foregoing resolutions, we invoke the aid of Almighty God, and the conservative element of the white race, whose interest in good government-and impartial administration of affairs-should be exalted as ours.

3. That we recommend that the state take charge of the convicts, and work them to the best advantage of the state, and for the prevention of the commission of crime.

SIGNED, A. Wilson, Chairman.

Ishmael Lonon,

L. Crawford,

J. F. Long,

W. A. Pledger,

E. P. Holmes,

N. J. McCombs,

Kitt Williams,

L. Solomon,

A. F. Hawkins,

A. W. Burnett,

C. J. Beason,

W. R. Gray,

G. W. Byrum,

Whitman Chapman.


After a few remarks by Col. Pledger, the report was adopted. A. A. Gordon, Esq., submitted report of committee on


as follows, which was adopted, after remarks by Revs. E. K. Love, C. H. Brightharp and Col. Pledger:

WHEREAS, We find on our chain-gangs, many abuses of power, both cruel and illegal: Some males and females are chained together on the public highways, convicts are often poorly clad, whipped inhumanlly by white bosses who are ostracized by their own race, which destroys in the convict all moral respect, and hardens the criminal; and



WHEREAS, Working convicts in inclement weather, and putting long sentence upon convicts for trivial offenses, is against the letter and spirit of the law, as well as common humanity; therefore be it

Resolved, That we recommend the separation on all county chain-gangs, of male and female convicts, and that they be required to work not more than 10 hours daily; that they be furnished with clothes sufficient to have more frequent changed; that they have some one to preach to them at least once a month.

2. That we recommend that females be confined in some private enclosure and there be required to do such work as is suitable for their sex and that under no circumstance, men and women be allowed to work together.

3. That the president of this body appoint a committee from the different parts of the State to ascertain more fully the workings of the chain-gang.

4. That we appeal to every citizen of Georgia to unite with us in having this great evil corrected.

Signed, J. M. Bunn: Chairman

J.J. Lee, J.W. Williams, E. Brown,

J.D. Donoway, L. Jordan, J.E. Tripp,

Nelson Lowe, M. D Dennard, M. E. DeLaney,

A. A. Mathis, A.A. Gordon, J.B. Davis,

J.S. Mason, G.W. Tally, S.W. West,

Whitman Chapman, Committee.

Maj. S. W. Easley submitted the report of committee on


as follows:

WHEREAS, Being, very largely, the producing element—bone and sinew, at least,—of the state, the most important of her prosperity and glory, and the class that should be subjected to as few deprivations of the earmarks of freemen as possible, and,

WHEREAS, The law prescribes only intelligence and respectability as the qualifications for the jury services, frowning upon all discrimination, in its sweeping provisions on this subject, that would flow from race, or previous conditions of servitude; and

WHEREAS, Inheriting this privilege, immunity and right, as one of the great foundation rocks upon which our superstructure of government is erected, hence it is our stern duty to insist, as defender of the faith of republican civilization and liberty, to be called to the discharge of this responsibility and service; therefore be in

Resolved, That the colored citizens throughout the State be advised to pass resolutions at their monthly or yearly gathering, urging in a respectful way, the jury commissioners to revisit the list, so as to draw colored tax-payers to the discharge of this great function of citizenship, remembering that republican liberty is the result of ceaseless agitation, and they be admonished to continue the discussion of this righteous cause of remonstrance, until their rights in the premises, are freely accorded and acknowledged.

Signed, J.W. Lyons; Chairman

C. C. Wimbish, P.O. Holt, Ab Watts,

P.W. Wingfield, S. B. Morse, J.W. Upshaw,

Manuel Persons, Henry Rudisell, Wm. Brooks,

Henry Coleman, E.J. Tatum, H.M. Williams,

J.W. Jones, R.S. Lovinggood, G.W. Bently,

S.W. Easly, Committee.

Capt. C. C. Wimbish said the Jury System was as old as civilization itself, and it was quite time the colored man of Georgia were enjoying this privilege to which he was entitled, and that by the proper use of the ballot it would come. To sit on the juried of our country he said, was more important than the privilege of voting. Hundreds of colored men have been sent to the chain-gang, the pentitentiary and to the gallows, not because they were guilty, but because they were tried by juries wholly white and who were controlled rather by their prejudice than by evidence. By denial of the right to sit on the jury the colored man is deprived of the power to protect his life, his home, an the virtue of the race, which is sweeter than life itself. He knew of one case where a colored man was convicted and sent to the peniten-

CONSULTATION CONVENTION. mittee because adopted. tiary J. for on W. no 16 Marlow, colored years on man Esq., evidence was submitted on that the jury. would the not convict a The report was following report dog._ "was received and of the com¬ EDUCATION. which was adopted

not tact young: will intelligent tance in English the Convention soon Whereas, Whereas, various Whereas, present with that and education those the voters, insurmountable mechanical youth races It We We, assembled, seems loyal among know the should that and arts; that representatives chat are our know patriotic be difficulties, and people, giving in trained the the absence citizens. to more in great when of enable practical the attention of need our them Negro these We and people of regard to qualifications, of a to become scientific the thoroughly the are it state training of brought proper farming, equal of the practical Georgia, leaders, in of impor¬ future con¬ and the WHEREi doing many youth; Whereas, ers as Resolved1st, to secure 2nd. tax, in purpose. to rec?ive s, any aid The aid rendered vast good, yet of our counties, we is and We feel the tax-pavers; therefore That six month's we urge That schooling upon we order that there may the efforts of the from the nation; and state to educate the youth, is believe wholly by inadequate that the the state, present for to the which three proper we months education are grateful, school of the in is colored be it citizens are becoming too largely default¬ urge be our from a this people, larger Convention the fund the state importance from for to our use which children. every of paying to method possible draw their for said poll J. J. W. H. R. H. pense The citizens School that the tions We to-wit:—Bishop W. Rev. the months appointed, line, the manly not gro withdrawal and worthy S. K. S. J. M. H. J. same White, 7th, fund Negro it appropriating 6th, 5th, feel 4th. race. Lovinggood, Sinton, 3rd, T. state wise, C. be Turner, Smith, any of is White, for course Hudson, of T. in of laid unfair That che That That That to that That appropriated attempt this and has the legislature whites, our together Walker, the of before state J. of we while rural as grand we we we confidence that the the that H. senators W. the much urge deprecate endorse it as Eight urge and M. by the Senator state Mar with districts. as the teachers to we state, anybody Signed, be Turner, legislation upon do the legislature to right by low, legislature do the Thousand and petitioned ought and Dr. nothing the make educational and not the the H. our to S. of Ned representatives E. Derry J. importance T. A. H. E. respect. Blair D. else. We ask should W. be cowardly the W, state, W. K. M. it to J. people B. Dt, to G. McWhorter, by educated the should for Dollars co-education, recommend Blair, Fisher, Love, furnish Dent, Atlanta Brown, Jones, Easley. Murden, for educational prevent, L. Haygood, the have as the voice advancement., L. the the act above to provide Chairman. and of D. Negro. from every University. importance as said same, of keep of ,Rev. having co-education. of the skillful the this named to that the bill the schools, right we for the W. Georgia so supporters Convention, We and United as Atlanta a State condemn, in a arrange J. schools committee. any B. workmen A. J. E. of committee J. J. being State are any that Gaines, and E. H. A. "W. Walker, T. so other Legislature States Normal We tax-payers wise, Williams' University, C. Stephens, Huff, we Technological Marlow, the supplementing just, these of running Dixon, and at citizen endorse D. his at urge address of of Congress, the Schools. We D., practical address the the five resolu¬ bill ' are in the and Ne¬ same the nine be of Rev. that feel and has. ex¬ Committee.



Rev. S. A. McNeal submitted the report of the committee on LYNCH LAW, which was adopted as follows:—

WHEREAS, We are surrounded with such a condition of circumstances, known as lunch law, and

WHEREAS, The Negro is the viction nearly all the lynchings in this state, and all other states in this country: and

WHEREAS, It has come to your committees notice through public print, that 123 persons were lynched in the United States last year, and

WHEREAS, This unlawful and inhuman practice is becoming so alarmingly great, that we, the colored men of Georgia, in Convention here assembled, denounce the same, and offer the following:

Resolved, That it is a fundamental idea of our theory of government, that no man shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law. It is therefore barbarous, cruel, and and alarming outage of law, that what is known as lynch law, should, under any circumstances, be tolerated, suffered or endured.

Resolved, further, That it is the duty of every true citizen to do all in his power to break up this infamous practice and outrage of law.

Signed, L. Solomon, Chairman.

Bobert Odom, W. Paschal, F. F. Kellum,

P. H. Lee, R. Jackson, Cyrus West,

George Lewis, Madison Epps, J. M. Gibson,

A. T. Turner, Jackson Eldridge, George Banks,

S. B. Burges, S. A. McNeal, C. Barker,

A. D. Simmons, William Williams. Committee.

the victim nearly all the lynchings that Whereas, W 123 and hereas, persons all other It This were has states unlawful lynched come in to this and your in country: and committees in this notice through public print, the inhuman United practice States last is becoming year, and so alarmingly great, denounce no law. what man Resolved, is It that known shall is the we, therefore be same, That as deprived the lynch colored it and barbarous, is law, a offer of fundamental men life, the should, liberty of cruel following: Georgia, under and idea or property, au of any in our alarming Convention circumstances, theory without outrage of government, here due of assembled, process law, that that of be tolerated, suffered Resolved, or endured. further, That it is the duty his Bobert P. George A. H. T. power Turner, Lee, Odom, Lewis, to break up this Signed, infamous Jackson R. Madison W. L. Jackson, Solomon, Paschal, practice Eldridge, Epps, of Chairman. and every outrage true of citizen F. Cyrus George J. law. F. M. to do all in Kellum, West, Gibson, Banks, S. A.D.Simmons, T. B. White, Committee Burges, Esq., COMMITTEE on which state organization was S. William ON A. unanimously STATE McNeal, Williams. submitted ORGANIZATION. adopted. their report C. Barker. through Committee. J. Mr. interchange while your anxious sensible, President, We, earnest we to your we come so of trust, attention. work, committee and ideas to you, of Gentlemen as and the to to We solemn on have opinions, give State have of the an responsibility the Organization, gone approval account have Convention:— into concluded of of the our our placed discharge after own stewardship, our due upon consciences work, of deliberation, us, our [and and duty, you first; ask sincerely give deeply a your that free us plaudits '•How can after. we best The unite paramount our people, consideration so as to Avith secure your concert committee of action has been, upon those old must commonwealth." bear things the which crucial vitally test Realizing of affect your as our criticism, we highest did, that we interest the tried, action as so citizens of our of this committee power grand in us rested, to present that plan which would best accomplish the end desired and at the same far as the time, meet your approval. continually ing, but not present necessarily themselves, embarrassing, but it is position. Our people True, are perplexing now in an problems interest¬ that I stand in my place with no small degree of race pride, it most be; properly our upon must Problem, Convention, out; well own emphatic us. have demonstrate or salvation. comprehend and as illy been it there accordingly, done. presents terms must Work it and All so at itself go as my of plainly, ably it as no a the out member we in command, uncertain solve, remedies this in perform that "fear if country, of he given sound. this and provided that our who Convention, a trembling," duty, there fair which runs The opportunity will is may eyes Negro no the it and phase of read." may verdict the wisdom declare of to be, country the Fronl work bat upon cannot in Negro work this the out are us it confessedly the Mr. statement President, exhausted of applied the that white from itself, and people, this failed ere Convention, my to that race effect there in a this cure; is no state, by balm statesmanship the will in highest Gilead. accept civilization, must as We a took, have fact, there would be demanded some show tangible that evidence we know that the we situation; are here sympathize for the people. with Something existing conditions; must be done rec¬ to ognize duty be —"He leaders what in the are the they fact fearful premises, may. that responsibilities. desperate Momentous and knowing diseases times dare demand are upon perform desperate us. Upon remedies; our consequences know our Now, ever, the history shoulders To who the following dallies plan dastard, organization, and our people, who we doubts invite your damned." To the following plan or organization, we invite your attention:—

inutes of consultation convention. UNION BROTHERHOOD OF GEORGIA—STATE COUNCIL. Whereas, It has progress for men engaged been in found a common necessary cause, in and all aiming ages of the world s to accomjilish purposes Whereas, beneficial There to all alike, to form some sort of compact; interest of the people the state are specially and are of a number of Georgia, and objects in which that the pertain colored to people the best interested, matters Whereas, bear specially We, the upon colored them, sembled, realize the importance the ballot, Whereas, and We believe that because of the fact and people of more of unity Georgia in such an of that some of the Convention as¬ lent only to prevent the prostitution of the ballot of action in the use of organization will tend, not whicli is so largely preva¬ that in our state at the present time, but will elevate the franchise to higher use which God; Whereas, and will make the voice of the people the voice ot We regard such consummation, as most desirable to all classes of our state; therefore be it the Resolved, That we do here agree to form an organization, objects, aims and purposes object of and which name. shall be as follows

the colored 1st. voters The of object Georgia of through, this cast their ballots as to organization shall be to so unite the local organizations, that they may so classes without effect the best interests of the state, and of all duty such 2nd. To this regard end each to bound to vote in men or measures race or creed. state, member county of tlie and organization municipal will be held in cils of this organization. organization 3rd. This has to do, as shall It being be endorsed distinctly by the understood state or elections, local that coun¬ this for of Georgia. 4th. It only with state, and not national affairs. organization shall be known as the Union Brotherhood local shall have a State Executive Council, a State Council, and organizations as hereinafter provided. membership. members The membership of all local organizations of this Constitution. Union in Brotherhood the state, organized shall comprise under this the state The State Council of this President, 13 Vice-Presidents, inafter Secretary Council, provided. and and the Treasurer, Chairman the of council. Union Brotherhood Recording Chairman of each County shall consist of the Secretary, Corresponding each Senatorial District and City Council as here¬ The officers of officers the State and Council executive of be a President, 3 Vice-Presidents from Presidents to be of Georgia, a, Recording chosen, one each from council. the Union Brotherhood the State at large, the ten Congressional shall 10 Vice- districts dnd cil. Union _ shall of the Secretary, Chaplain. These officers They Brotherhood, shall have when the be Union elepted Brotherhood, annually at shall constitute Corresponding the State Secretary, Executive Treasurer Coun¬ general the State oversight Council and is not management in session. the regular meeting and shall hold their of the They of the State Council office one year, or

OP CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 23 until their successors the officers elected at hold tlieir seats until are the the elected, and. take tlieir seats. Provided, that annual organization MEETINGS. meeting of this in 1880. Union Brotherhood shall shall State The be Executive held meetings annually Council. of the at such State time Council and place of this as maybe Union Brotherhood fixed by the In each of the SENATORIAL Senatorial in whose Congressional District DISTRICT COUNCIL. Districts of Georgia, the Vice-President said Senatorial District is located, shall call who, a when meeting assembled, of delegates, shall to be elected district, constitute a by Senatorial the people District in each Council of the Union Brotherhood District Council shall be a of Chairman, Georgia. The officers of this Senatorial Chairman ber of the of each Senatorial District State Council of the Union Council Secretary, shall and be Brotherhood of Treasurer. ex-officw Georgia. The a mem¬ Should Vice-President any Senatorial in District whose be district located two in counties two Congressional are located, Districts shall have the jurisdiction over the COUNTY whole. AND CITY CHAIRMAN". Savannah, In each Macon, county of Athens, the state, Koine, and in Columbus the cities and of Atlanta, Brunswick, Augusta, the Vice President in whose district said county and city is located, shall call a mass meeting for the purpose of choosing a city chairman who shall be ex-o[ficio Union Brotherhood of Georgia. county and in counties where above cities are members Provided, of that the the State county Council jurisdiction chairman of the within the corporate limits of said located, shall not have cities, have jurisdiction outside SUB-ORTtANIZATIOXS. of said city. nor shad a city Chairma n The State Executive Council shall provide for the organization of as many sub-councils of the Union Brotherhood in counties and cities, as Council they*mav shall from have time power to time to make deem advisable. all necessary The by-laws, State Executive rules and State regulations The President Executive for shall, the Conucil, carrying by "the call concurrence out extra of the or special objects of any meetings four of this members Brotherhood. of the of the State Council. The Executive Council shall have power to fill any vacancies that mav occur in its own body. Committee on State Organization,—John T. White, Chairman; A. T. M. Wilson, Robinson, Dennis John F. Heard, Douglass, John H. T. Brown, M. Dent, T. H. C. Hutcherson, T. Walker, H. P Squire T M. Remarks Grant, Owens, Willliams, B. were Win. H. C. made Smith, Huff, H. Brightharp, by C. J. the C. E. Clarke, President, Drake, John T. D. W. Col. T. L. Marlow, Daniel Grant, Solomon, D. Murden, Thomas. Pledger, and Bishop Turner. The Committee on State following names for officers of the State For Council President, of the Union Biotheihood. Rev. William Organization Hon. Anthony Col. J. 0. W. A. ... reported the Beall, Pledger, Esq., J. Wilson, WThite, Vice-Presidents, .... - - - State at - Large, - Augusta, Ga. - - - - Bailey's Atlanta, Mils, Ga. Hamilton,

... 24 MINUTES OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 1 J. H. Brown, Vice-Presidents. Esq., 2 Hon. Ishmael Lonon, 3 Prof. T. M. Dent, 4 B. T. Harvey, 5 7 6 Esq., Jr., - - ... - Congressional District. Savannah, Ga. Albany, Hawkinsville, Columbus, Atlanta, Macon, " " " " " Acworth, Athens, Gainesville, " " " Augusta, " Maj. Hon. S. P. W. 0. Holt, Easly, Rev. C. M. Manning, - 8 9 Thos. Capt. A. P. Hawkins, - 10 Capt. Morris, J. W. Esq., - Lyons, Recording D.F.Douglass, Esq., - - ... Secretary, - - - - Augusta, " Corresponding Secretary, John T. "White, Esq., - Treasurer, - - Macon, " Robert R. Battey, Esq., Chaplain, - Augusta, " Rev. E. P. Holmes, Macon, Rev. E. L. Martin submitted report of committee on " RAILROAD DISCRIMINATIONS. these railroad terment Mr. twenty-three President discriminations, of our conditions, and years Members beg of financially, freedom leave of to we this submit morally have Convention:—Your made the and following every intellectually effort to committee for wit: and the During have bet¬ on reasonably lands, have the wallsuooeeled. large interests in We city have properties, accumulate! have year a million acres of farm sons and per and cent daughters, have to of share our to illiteracy, to other deck states. every till we militia In are the able, district face after year reduced with our chaste and virtuous of with our growing teachers and wealth, ministers good the development, accommodations culture accorded and intellect, the lowest we are vagabond denied on account of our color, on we the have trains, to pay and as in the such richest sheds nabob as the of Atlanta the to make an effort to better this condition of white affairs. union race. of Therefore depot, the Feeling white we we, race; are the the injustice actuated though mem¬ bers of this Convention, under our most earnest consideration, which is now assembled in the city cars, the tickets, on demn the state Resolved, Resolved, and it railroads and and of rejecting Georgia. then put That and forth forcing us we, public fro The every the us, n the welfare of the colored of Macon, people have most barbarous in highways, in compelling discriminations us to purchase is made against first-class us and our wives first-class members effort and daughters to ride in smoking accommodation. in Therefore be it of our this power Convention denounce and con¬ home, or republican, stop Resolved to and this That every instruct that will our people not to put it down. member of this Convention be pledge to vote us, for that no he man, will use white every or Be it instructed black, democrat effort to further mission commodations. and most the further, railroad Therefore diabolical That authorities practice. be a committee it further to be have appointed first-class to see and the second-class State to go put a Com¬ ac¬ the requested mode no unjust United Resolved, Resolved of treatment and discrimination. States, further, urged That the that the to In Legislature change Inter-State we the abstain event this of of Commerce as mode Georgia a much of treatment as and Commission, possible the the Congress Railroad authorities so that there from of be shall be wrong travelling in this on such railroads, and patronize Signed: those S. C. failure to correct the Upshaw, railroads that Chairman; treat us best. R. J. D. Henry, Reed, D. Jolly L. Thomas, Solomon, R. Taylor, Whitman D. Murden, Chapman, R. Scott, E. Daniel C. L. T. Martin, Lewis, James, F. J. S. Joseph W. Paschal, Kellum, Neal, Jones,

the t,nnea _ nil Maj. loads. spo Easly ~e warmly lie objected had of no to the particular naming treatment Atlanta's desire received to depot ride bv particularly. Dr. colored people on with white people other W2ei\ ^ right would ni st-class cany out passengers first-class rode. fare he If claimed the colored the men to ride where the recommendations of this committee of Georgia we would soon have proper accommodations adopted with some amendments. on all railroads. The report was resohrtfon^°W^n^ Rev. W. J. "White cornm^ee was appointed Augusta, in accordance with above Bishop H. M. Turner Atlanta, Rev. ja. Rev. J. Rev. Col. W. W. J. C. A. J. Bryan Gaines, Pledger D. D.. Americus, Atlanta, Athens, Capt. Hon. A. W. "Wilson... Lyons .Baily's Augusta Mills, " " " " Rev. B. T. E. Harvey. B. K. S. Love Williams. Esq... .Columbus, Savannah, LaGrange, Ga. Rev. Islimael Lonon.. Hon. L. Crawford .Albany, Darien, Col. Capt. J. Wimbisli,.. ."Atlanta, " " Rev. Maj. S. C. W. Upshaw, Easier, •' H. Deveaux.. Capt. R. M. A. Logan. Hawkins Esq .Savannah, Athens, Macon, Rev. W. H. Tilman, Rev. " " J. E. R. Carter, A statement was made in behalf Jno. T. Heard, White, Esq.... Esq Macon, Greensboro, Rev. L. Williams.. .Washington, of Col. J. H. Deveaux, Savan¬ nah, cultural REPORT Maj. expressing Society OF W. COMMITTEE his as Easley follows sorrow submitted ON not STATE being report able AGRICULTURAL Committee attend the on meeting. SOCIETY. State Agri¬ respectfully We n/r. recommend President:—We, and unarimously the immediate your submit Committee organization the following on State Agricultural Society, tion industrial ly, state among fairs, pursuits, the exhibiting colored people the mechanical the stare, for genius, the of purpose agricultural report: an Agricultural giving, productions, Associa¬ annual¬ the state. The organization the conduct treasurer, state, and who, and manage with ten and the vice-presidents, professional president, shall consist shall advancement one from constitute president, each congressional an the executive colored genera district secretary, people board, organize tary, cutive Board treasurer, his respective and the as districts many affairs vice-presidents into the county Association. clubs, as they with Each vice-president president, shall secre¬ and bv-laws members of for the shall their Association. arrange government, the The plans Executive and organization, draw may up desire. constitution The Exe¬ submit Board the same shall for issue approval monthly, the an agricultural Board fix the shall also journal, arrange salaries of all for the officers, the benefit prizes and other and the premiums members for exhibits. the Association. shall Any This also person dollar in may the become general funds member the expenses the Association. retary. committee certificate year, in whatever The of wishes Board membership, to city shall, remind they signed this possible, may worthy this Association, by ^select. the Association arrange gathering general for for submitting president upon which general the they and payment shall state general receive fair this sec¬ one fruitful results that accrue from the establishing the State grand, this Agricultural glorious report, your and As¬ sociation to the colored tention cannot be paid to people the agricultural our beloved state, and that too much ernment and honest For laborer, upon and the industrious jealous pride farmer, for interests the the skilled production mechanic, well regulated the faithful gov¬ wealth indispensable depends and It recognition class in this citizens, particular glory and the stability this useful and government among the other field great that the Negro rise the scales adorn glory the our energies world of the our galaxy'of in to race advanced the developing nations the world. Let bend Board shall at once and open the make illustrious civilization. subscription our old sisterhood resources, state book We recommend one for that stock, States the will and which brightest add that when the the controlling stars Executive fame sufficient that and

TATION CONVENTION. amount stockholders, holders. shall have for the been purpose subscribed of permanent and paid organization ins meeting of the among the stock¬ Respectfully submitted, Smith W. Easley, shall call a Jr., Chairman, Daniel Mcllorton, Nathan Toomer, J. W. W. F. Searles, Bailey, L. Crawford, Thos. Joseph Peter John Isaiah Glenn, Thomas, Andrews, Ellington, Levell, Committee, B. E. A. N. T. D. S. McWhrrter. Jtiarvey, Jennings, Thurmond, After Hon. L. some Crawford slight amendments spoke eloquently the report was adopted. farming would State Agricultural accrue interest to the more Society. colored largely, people by supporting of of the many advantages that Georgia and if they giving would success foster to our the Holmes By motion were Hon. L. Crawford, Maj. S. W. appointed tural Society. Easley and Eev. E. P. to recommend officers for the State Agricul¬ The Finance Committee took up a collection amounting to $10, to pay off expenses. Committee to nominate officers for State Agricultural Society made the following report which was adopted: tural We, Society, your beg committee leave to appointed submit President the to following nominate : report: officers for * the State Agricul¬ District, Hon. • Hon. lor's J. Creek, B. Frazier L. Vice-Presidents Crawford, Tay¬ Darien, Ga. : 1st 6th Dist. R. M. Logan, Macon, 7th 2nd Dist. Peter Griffin, Smithville, 8rd Dist. — Williams, Dawson, 4th Dist. Augustus Gaines, Columbus, 5th Dist. C. C. Wimbush, Atlanta. Treasurer Rev. W. Dist, 8th Diet. 9th Dist. A. Robert Harrison S. Thurmond, Howell, Harris, Warsaw, Cedartown, Madison, 10th Dist. Rev. D. McHorton, Augusta. J. Maj. S. Secretary Gaines, Jr., Atlanta,

Ga. L. Crawford, The President Respectfully W. Easley, submitted, Atlanta, Ga. S. W. Easley, *J. proceedings Eev. W. Prof W. Lyons, J. H. White, in J. and pamphlet Rev. Rev. announced T. C. form, E. Max Turner. as the Manning, per following resolution Rev. committee D. of E. on P. printing Holmes. McHorton, the Convention

adopted Whereas, : ing the Unsolved, call journals R. of M. T. Hudson offered the following resolution which was of That this The Convention, this Negro Convention newspapers therefore do of extend be the it state a vote have of been kind thanks to in publish¬ all of said said State. Logan, Esq., offered the following adopted Whereas, lished the : Resolved. H. M. proceedings Williams, That The we Macon of extend Esq., this Telegraph Convention, and resolution the therefore Evening be News it which was have kindly pub¬ adopted Whereas,

which the Resolved, colored This people Convention of to them our sincere thanks for these courtesies.
offered the following resolution which was has met to seek redress for grievances Georgia suffer, therefore be it under Bishop H. M. That we appoint J. White, Lyons and Georgia Turner, Hon, A. and invoke Wilson their Dr. earnest to W. submit a J. consideration committee Gaines, our grievances Col. to of consist W. the A. to same. the of Pledger. Rev. next W. Capt. J. W. legislature of

UTES OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 27 •ul opted vrTfnn,hrr ^ tli^ir UinrlriPCQ of their house ^ illiams, Esq., offered following resolution which of anri toXp7 tefndeio0lir Rev. ftfelt thanks the Cotton Avenue Bap- Robinson, OonTM"'<>n and also gating the deacons ous ho^)itaTi1tyThat lhe subject S°°d citizens Macon kindly Atlanta next Bishop A motion H. M. committee of thanked gener- tall Turner, was the introduced and proposed Col. W. and National A. discussed Pledger. Exposition by Mai. beheld W. Easley, was six of made which and he shall adopted be chairman that the to President investigate appoint ter and in their judgment so in behalf of this Convention worthy our endorsement and the colored people the mat¬ they do Georgia. resolution The chairman Rev. appointed W. J. White, the following Augusta, Nathan Capt. Toomer, irnbish, Atlanta, Col. II. Col. committee Deveaux, AY. A. Pledger, under Savannah, the Atlanta, above Hon. Report Perry, Plon. A. Wilson. Bailey's Mills. committee on resolutions was submitted and adopted, as follows REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS. Your committee on resolutions respect full}- submit the following report: assembled, bearing and We, prosperity upon the do representatives questions hereby the commonwealth. issue which the we the following regard colored as statement citizens Georgia, the people Convention the state, glory 1st. being vital interest the dition. with tion resolution 130 question Georgiav counties 2nd. of alarm to citizenship.- It to where Common be respectfully and the of called right this end, remonstrate this carriers upon state of that deprivation We the and to recommend are people, perform call may against properly endowed colored irrespective remedied. their the the that drawn, men high failure with rights the to duty certain press the people race, the discharge practiced, the jurors, franchises authorities color, consideration all therefore or the this previous given petition counties more high we by func¬ view than con¬ this and the state for the compassing the convenience the people the creatures citizen. We of therefore the state denounce, and are as amenable unmeasured terms, the law the as practice large; the humblest they rail¬ are roads their trains, in charging and then, colored defiance citizens their the plighted state first-class faith, coercing fare for passage them into on the amounted continuance acceptance 3rd. The to of action its the inferior withdrawal, appropriation of the accommodations. General for Assembly the causes Atlanta frivolous Georgia, University, and coupling with the insufficient, conditions that was unjust, throughout unfair the state and take illegal. steps We secure therefore the recommend next Legislature that representa people tives appropriation civilization; our equitable 4th. pledged The share present stain the that upon removal school, the penitentiary the landscript unfettered escutcheon these system fund conditions and the the untrammeled Georgia nation state; and the means bounty. foul restoration these blot conditions upon this our lators enrich classes of the themselves state, with but the slight expense regard and on the miseries the requirements which specu¬ the criminal law the rio-ht obligations demn svstem nitive organize of the justice of the themselves Georgia proper state to humanitv persons to punishment entrust We for that or recommend the corporations, or one purpose delegate creature transgressors that this the holds securing high people exercises function the another. legislative law, each under county but administering We representation we penitentiary deny Georgia con¬ pu¬ pledged more 5th in to The consonance the ballot abolition with all the Republican this enlightened system judgment our state and present erection day. one Democratic forms government the only means by which the citizen last resort, can express will

or should wishes, be entertained, hence it is a question lawful or illegitimate the committed people, that to they vote means, that to after elevate tampered of depositing the no man greatest with. the to office magnitude We, ballot, or therefore, it power has that been who recommend any by is suspicion any un¬ not fully to 6th. Legislative mend cally the that inseparable the the inviolability of a free colored representations rights citizens of every in all and American of ballot taxation and are a fair traditionally the counties citizen. of count. tion, of duty equitably who the the government, purpose hope 8th. 7th. are and of the voluntarily A Intelligence for\the to apply well state impartially of securing the regulated it perpetuity to is provide being their of the proper every basis voice form and in the Legislature We, Georgia of therefore the organize and state. histori¬ recom¬ for foundation of government; around therefore which it clusters is the S. J. A. W. Sykes, Easley, J. W. T. A. White, Pledger. money raised for the for education this purpose. of the masses, the distribute duty malitia of the being official state the recognition to defense properly and of provide safe-guard all connected Signed, J. with J. C. B. C. W. L. this Wimbish, Williams; Lyons, service. Chairman. and to justly and of our form for this institu¬ classes of citizens A. Wilson, R. S. Lovinggood, T. M. Dent. Lewis Williams, C. Max Manning, A. Graves, JB. *C. T. H. Harvey, Brightharp, J. A. C. W. Bryan, Burnett, Ishmael John Heard, Lonon, E. P. Holmes, E. K. Love, W. P. W. O. J. F. Holt, Nickerson, R. J. W. W. H. H. Hubbard, Marlow, Smith, Gaines. Committee. The committee on printing for amount H. M. necessary to print was authorized to assess the members for next meeting to Washington On motion tendered to Williams, the proceedings Esq., offered of the Convention. for of this Bishop offer. Turner, President for his the impartial the hospitality in pamphlet. the business of the Convention. A vote of thanks of and of Washington, Ga., thanks was tendered the Convention Avere able conducting of in hand. The finance committee reported all bills paid and a small balance The By motion President the made balance a vention The and Convention urging all then to go in hand few remarks after to work. a was divided between the secretaries. returning thanks to the- Con most harmonious session adjourned sine die. TO THE PEOPLE OF GEORGIA. respective begin put the the November. ple zation cate countersigned lay ing industrial made I, Macon Georgia therefore, of mechanic, wage their at and Having of at it one the upon on membership exhibiting obligatory by an shoulder worker, pursuit, the state, counties, dollar a early the appeal Under been vote 26th the by payment a date Every the are of to artizan, the piece, to upon elected of to and signed this eight the General to earnestly January, professional every pay one the arrange and great world of the President by hundred one can in Executive colored any President professional the wheel their the dollar, the requested aid person for County skill latent me resolution of money man, a of of State colored Board for and and in race can the powers, to man, woman this President which advancement General so become progress, form Fair State to establishing that men work. the give the they agricultural and seamstress, the assembled a Agricultural Secretary. and a mechanical member and The child will Executive State of County aid this shares receive the in Fair me of the clubs in organization, this The colored the genius, in thfe Society Secretary, Board have this cook, a state, present¬ farmer, in organi¬ certifi¬ city year. their been peo¬ and can the of to of ry, county a treasurer, organizations and our rules each as will many soon vice-presidents be county out, and is as entitled will they be late may to furnished a in desire. president, October, on By-laws or a demand. secreta¬ first for of

OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 29 body. Certificates higher ment. Darien, in I Respectfully, again the Ga., of industrial membership appeal January to field, every 31 will , be lover issued of to every one upon joining the general to make his race, who desires to see it 1888. a united Lectured effort Crawford, to aid in this President. great ascend move¬ Mills, white T ast Camden and of colored counties Co.; for showing the O year the 1886, differences furnished of the by Hon. Poll Tax A. Wilson, paid between the of Bailey's counties and repre¬ sentatives. Baker 1 Baldwin 1 Bibb 3 Bryan Burke 1 3 Calhoun 1 Camden 1 Chattahoochee 1. Clay Columbia 1 1 Dougherty Early Echols 1 2 Green Glynn 2 1 Hancock 2 Harris 2 Houston 2 Jasper Jefferson 1 2 Jones 1 Lee 1 | i1 counties and repre¬ sentatives. t 1 324 727 Liberty 815 1282 Lincoln 2760 2797 Macon 407 457 McDuffie 1074 3049 Mcintosh 375 641 653 1042 464 493 756 1015 575 682 Merriwether 275 611 1364 1372 318 552 Monroe 317 423 Morgan 1175 1814 845 1321 570 781 Muscogee 583 1052|Oglethorpe 403 1393 Putnam 1384 1413 1010 1334 634 1251 573 875 Quitman 281 395 368 378iSchley 307 692 Stewart 380 446 794 1425 958 1563 Sumter 810 1301 Talbot 1101 1278 Taliaferro 1037 1171 714 1208 949 2164 Terrell 819 1025 Troup 1031 1383 Twiggs 671 1148 Warren 317 1088 Washington Wilkes 456 651 900 1144 1113 1193 448 633 791 976 1749 1868 994 1622 {^"Figures Representatives. opposite each name indicate? number of members in House of

ATION CONVENTION. the the colored following List of the and counties white for showing the year the 1886. differences The of the Poll Tax paid between Mills, Camden counties Co.

except Echols county; by colored Hon. outnumber A, Wilson, the of white Bailey's in POPULATION CEN¬ SUS of 1880. COUNTIES AND REPRESENTATIVES. . <D

T3 cb T3 0> 2 £ O O O O £ O o Brooks 1 Chatham 3 Clarke 1 Coweta 2 Crawford 1 Decatur 2 Elbert 1 Lowndes Marion 1 1 Mitchell 1 Newton 1 Pike 2 Pulaski 1 Randolph Richmond 1 3 950 882 5670 6057 5040 1703 17460 27535 9S9 974 5308 6394 1580 1510 9305 11804 681 604 3940 4716 1627 1351 88S8 10183 1152 1056 6084 6873 98C 721 5412 5637 790 702 4291 4307 967 642 4189 5203 1146 864 6735 6884 1329 94(5 7778 8071 1550 801 5824 8234 908 Screven 1 Spalding Thomas 1 2 Upson Echols 1 1 717 5545 7796 4610 3658 17086 17483 1176 1109 6173 6013 874 8-12 5438 7147 1494 1269 8384 12214 998 767 6133 6267 368 378 2053 500

MINUTES OF CONSULTATION CONVENTION. 31 to census List of of counties 1880 : in Georgia having a majority of colored voters according COUNTIES. COUNTIES. Baker Baldwin Bibb Brooks Bryan Burke Calhoun Camden Chatham Chattahoochee Clark Clay Columbia Coweta Crawford Decatur Dougherty Early Elbert Glynn Greene Hancock. 1740 5565 Mcintosh... 3858 9140 Macon . 11423 1572:? 5670 2868 6079 2354 209(1 17461 2125 5304 2798 3025 9305 3940 8888 1951 3013 6084 2194 5578 5045 6450 6061 4260 5580 3753 1738 3524 2255 5415 3429 1545 4290 4291 7815 4189 6690 4246 8994 6735 5466 7778 5834 3512 1773 5545 086 2229 6173 5438 4415 6050 4448 2310 4267 8384 6592 2844 6133 4087 9445 5170 4696 Marion 6057 2561 Meriwether. Mitchell.... 7385 4307 9836 5203 21048 Monroe 4670 4092 Morgan Muscogee... 27535 Newton 12112 9788 10328 6884 3546 6394 Oglethorpe Pike , 3852 Pulaski 7440 Putnam 9934 8071 8234 11027 11804 4716 Quitman Randolph... 10183 Richmond . 2619 7796 17483 10671 Schley 3073 4592 Screven 6613 6873 7147 9583 12189 9667 4724 6184 12214 13974 6074 6267 6798 12519 10815 17 Spalding 4303 Stewart Harris .. ... 11969 Sumter 11944 Houston Jasper Jefferson Jones Lee Liberty Lincoln Lowndes McDuffie Talbot 9314 Taliaferro .. 17190 Terrell 7589 Thomas 10089 Troup 7860 Twiggs 8839 Upson 7040 Warren ... 4157 "Washington 56371 Wilkes 6020

Convention Minutes Item Type Metadata

Convention Type








Start Date


End Date



Union Brotherhood of Georgia (1888 : Macon), “Proceedings of Consultation Convention of 350 leading Colored Men of Georgia. Held in Macon, Georgia, January 25th and 26th, 1888,” Colored Conventions Project Digital Records, accessed July 27, 2021,